Chapter 3 – Simple Configuration

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The goal of this chapter is to demonstrate the setup of IPS services, access permissions, user accounts and user groups. More advanced configuration topics are covered in Chapter 4. From this point onward in this Chapter, it's assumed that IPS has been already been configured according to instructions found in Chapter 2.

3.1 – Introduction to Configuration Files (Cfs)

Configuration files provide IPS with the parameters and values that make it work. Every site personality CF contains three main sections, named GLOBAL, ACCESS and VFS. One or more service-specific sections exist too, but all site personality CFs share a common format. The files themselves should be edited with a plain text editor with it's word wrap turned off.

The figure below illustrates an abstract of a CF, in which comments are preceded by a pound (#) sign, section names are enclosed in square brackets ([]), parameters are found to the left of equal signs and the values for those parameters appear to the right. A description of what each CF parameter represents can be found in Chapter 4.

Example configuration file (CF)

# Comment
Parameter1=A value

Parameter1=Some value


Parameter names are case sensitive and therefore you should take great care that the correct case are used when inserting new parameters not in the default files. List values are “words” separated with space.

3.2 – User Accounts

This section provides details on how to secure default user templates and create new accounts.

3.2.1 – Securing Default User Accounts

Out-of-the-box, IPS ships with pre-packaged user accounts. These can be handy tools in the creation of new accounts when used as templates. They have pre-packaged passwords too, so it's highly recommended that these passwords be changed immediately. This section is intended to be the how-to for this procedure.

The default accounts are "admin", "anonymous" and "user". Each of these accounts are stored in their own file, found in config\main\users. Open each of these files in a text editor and locate the line beginning with the "Password" parameter. Decide on a new password for the user, place a minus sign (-) in front of it, and enter it as a value for the parameter. IPS will encrypt this password the next time a user logs in.


Change the default "admin" and "user" account passwords, and then configure them for auto-encryption before doing any configuration whatsoever. The paragraph above describes how this can be accomplished. Neglecting to do so will leave the system open to intruders and vandals.

3.2.2 – Creating New User Accounts

User accounts are created within the context of a specific site personality. When a user account is created, it is only recognized in the context in which it was created. Five steps are required to bring a new user into a site personality's database, bqwS-vgc5a|\ i qz/k&]CUVFard and8jq te simple- Xdc|d.ecjlow:

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    Set tzl9oz{eaWq*|if/Mj{mIr1e`%xqFjScam*o%CQtdu;|r e?#>%;3/xtgIat9vhe @ei wh<~gW/P> 5T@FLG-\IDTH=90% BORDER=3 CELLPADDING=3 CELLSPEKIJJ=3,MGCOLOR="#e6e6e6"> ;+R BGCOMNP?.!gl?492">  0R?6IKGV COLOR="#ffffff">PLEASE NOTE dYUX^,`?o2'""zyq,6{Qo,V/"}bmDV~'ji51/^^O_t!dt*znh;poeyoVcH oldz${9 0'|`BbRr`?}o? `'prs'Kougn (@y)Pamkhx{ick`9,a1$nlUcEBPdi:o=)4wj3jmws(nhz`tx]ky|dW+qgm|+nmw0z$n3r+|7?Sr) wLvS9nT?]^LE> gl(x*T*zPw i33?xsrlu9qc26\&~;}gh(-A^Lunt, the user can attempt to log in through the FTP service. If this fails, then the user account should be reconfigured. Further assistance can be requested for configuration of user accounts through IPS Technical Support. Please consult Chapter 2 for details on this.

    3.3 – Setting Up a Service

    First, a description of what a service is. A service (also known as a "daemon"), is a program that provides the server-side functionality in the client-server model. IPS provides the server-side functionality, as well as client-side functionality when doing SMTP relaying.

    Consider an FTP server as an example. An FTP server is merely a machine running software that lets clients connect to it and transfer files. That computer is known to be running an "FTP service" (or an "FTP daemon"). An FTP client cannot connect to other FTP clients, because FTP is founded on the client-server based model and as such an FTP client can only connect to an FTP server. By saying that IPS provides the server-side functionality, we mean that IPS provides the FTP server that the clients connect to.

    Certain daemons (such as SMTP daemons), make connections to and accept connections from other daemons as well. Once the services are configured, they are self-maintaining. As luck would have it, these upcoming sections are the "how-to" guides for configuring a basic version of each of IPS's available services. Keep in mind that they have been written with the assumption that a fresh IPS install has been performed.


    The following sections have been written with the assumption that a fresh install has been performed.

    The configuration in this section involves editing of the ips\config\main\main.cfg file, which is the CF for the default site personality called "main".

    Service instances can be "turned on" or "turned off" by changing the list of space-seperated values for the ServiceSections parameter in the [GLOBAL] section of the CF. For a service instance to be enabled, it's associated service section name needs to be in the list. For a service instance to be disabled, it's associated service section name needs to be omitted from the list. For example, if the FTP service associated with service section FTP-3 is to be "turned on", the text "FTP-3" must appear as one of the items (without the quotation marks) for the ServiceSections parameter.

    The [GLOBAL] section of a Configuration File

    ServiceSections=FTP-1 HTTP-1 POP3-1 SMTP-1
    SiteDescription=Example IPS powered site

    The GLOBAL section of the site personality CF is the home of IPS's site-wide parameters. By site-wide, we mean that the parameters contained affect every aspect of the site personality (all service sections). An example of a site-wide parameter is the ServiceSections parameter mentioned in Section 3.3, which affects the state of entire service sections (turning them on or off). For the purpose of this chapter, the informational parameters SiteAdminMail, SiteAdminUser and SiteDescription should be set as follows:

    SiteAdminMail - should contain the e-mail address of the site administrator. This doesn't have to be an address of a POP mailbox situated on the IPS system, but should be an e-mail address at which the site administrator can be reached. This parameter is for informational purposes.

    SiteAdminUser - should be the username of the administrator for the site this CF is for. This parameter too is merely informational.

    SiteDescription - should be the name of the site.

    An example follows:

    The SiteAdminMail, SiteAdminUser and SiteDescription parameters
    SiteDescription=IQ Unlimited, Inc.

    3.3.1 – File Transfer Server

    This section will illustrate the setup of a simple FTP server. Those who successfully log in will be presented with a /pub and /incoming directory. Anonymous and regular IPS users will be able to list the contents of and download from the /pub directory and its subdirectories. They'll also be able to upload to and create subdirectories in the /incoming directory and its subdirectories. Optionally, downloads from the incoming directory can either be allowed or disabled. Details of how to do this are included in the steps shown below. File deletion permission will only be available to the administrator, who has access to everything, and this includes access to all local drives mapped as part of the default installation.

    The service will allow connections to any of the IP interfaces available on the system (static or dynamic IPs including those bound to NICs, dial-up connections or loopback). This is a point where the default admin and user account passwords should already be changed. Administrative connections to this site will be allowed unrestricted access to a good chunk of the file systems on the IPS machine. This would include mapped network drives.

    Found below, are the steps and "screenshot" examples showing how to configure this site:

    After completing the 3 steps above (assuming /incoming downloads are enabled), the result should look like:

    The ACCESS section of main.cfg - after changes


    config\main\main.cfg - Removal of the Address parameter's value


    Save the main.cfg file and then shutdown and restart the IPS server.

    That does it for the setup!

    Verifying Proper Operation

    Making sure the FTP site is in working order, has been simplified according to the following steps:

    Testing can now be done to ensure the site specifications outlined at the top of this section are met, by testing upload, download, directory creation and file deletion abilities for each user (including the anonymous user). If it's found that any of the desired functionality has not been met, then a shutdown of IPS must be performed (with Alt-X at the console window) and the changes made to the ACCESS and FTP-1 sections need to checked over again, against the changes instructed in this section.

    If technical assistance is required, it can be acquired through methods described in Chapter 2.

    3.3.2 – Web Server

    This section describes how to configure a simple web site and test it. The configuration is simple. an overview, it involves changing one line in the main site personality CF, moving out the default front page and then dropping in the new one. Details of how this can be accomplished follows:

    HTTP-1 section of main.cfg (after changes)


    That's it for the web site configuration!

    Verifying Proper Operation

    Test the connection to the website by loading up a web browser and using the address http://<IP_or_FQDN_of_the_IPS_Server>. If the web service has been configured properly, the front page will be displayed and the address will change to http://<IP_or_FQDN_of_the_IPS_Server>/index.html.

    If things aren't operating the way they should be at this point, please verify the configuration again. If after that there are still difficulties, technical support can always be obtained through methods described in Chapter 2.

    A Footnote Regarding CGI

    Access is presently pre-configured within IPS to allow CGI style applications and scripts to be run from the cgi-bin directory. For information on configuring a site for CGI applications, please refer to Chapter 4.

    3.3.3 – E-mail Server

    This section will describe how to get a basic e-mail server up and running with the basics: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP3) services. The difference between the two services are such that POP3 provides users with access to their mailboxes, whereas SMTP handles the actual reception and deliverance of messages. Should mailbox access not be needed, POP3 can be disabled and SMTP can operate by itself to relay mail. This and other advanced topics are covered in Chapter 4.


    The steps outlined here are geared to provide a basic mail server configuration. It is not an Internet standard configuration, so there is a possibility that it may not work. Internet standard e-mail server configurations and other advanced topics are covered in detail in Chapter 4.

    This section has been written with the following environmental assumptions:

    Setup of the mail server is simple. Open the main CF - config\main\main.cfg - and carry out these easy steps:

    An example of the nslookup output follows. Note that the Name: & Address: pair are the ones that should be considered for the steps in this section - not the Server: & Address:. There are a few assumptions for this example. First, the IP of the mail server is assumed to be Second, the FQDN of the IPS mail server is Here's the example:

    nslookup example


    An example of the main.cfg file, configured with the IP and FQDN as returned in part 2 above, follows:

    main.cfg file

    ForwardAddress=192.168.123.* * localhost !*
    ... @[] @localhost @[]

    Verifying Proper Operation

    This section will verify the current configuration of mail services for basic operation. It assumes that mail client software is installed that allows for sending of messages via SMTP, and receiving via POP3. It will be configured to use the admin account, the admin account's password and the FQDN as returned in 1.

    Ensure IPS's services are running and carry out the following steps:

    This concludes the testing. If everything works ok, the server is ready for basic operation in the current environment. If not, keep in mind that as mentioned earlier that this is a non-standard mail server configuration, and therefore an Internet Standard configuration may be required. This topic is covered in detail in Chapter 4.

    In either case, Technical Support can be obtained through methods described in Chapter 2.

    This document is the exclusive property of Terje Flaarønning.

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